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Geological - Ndola ..
Summary Introduction Industry Background Land Status Observations
  Field Work Results Conclusion    

This is an extract of a geological report done on the general Emerald Deposit Area of Ndola.  The investigations were done during the first half of 1997 by a Canadian exploration company.

1.0 Summary.
The Ndola-Rural Emerald Fields in the Republic of Zambia are believed to potentially represent the single greatest source of easily mined, high quality emeralds in the world.

Investigations have concluded that there is immediate potential to establish a producing operation through joint venturing with an existing artisinal operation(s), and that modern exploration is highly likely to result in significant discoveries of emerald deposits within the demarcated Protected, ie. Emerald mining Area, and further afield.

Zambia is known to producing the second most valuable emeralds in the world, after Columbia, with cuttable stones averaging $US 75-750/ct, and the better quality stones fetching as much as $US 10,000/ct after treating, cutting and polishing. Grades at the currently producing established open pit operations are believed to be similar to kimberlites ie. 10-100cpht, however no reliable data is available for substantiation. Somewhere between 10-30% of run-of-mine production is cuttable, with the rest saleable at low prices US$500-1,000/kg (or 5,000 cts.).

Currently the Zambian emerald industry is believed to produce less than 1,000kg/yr, or 5Mct (Remark - 1997 Year end results shows 1,800 kg), with most stones reaching cutting centres in India and Israel, thence marketed in Europe.

In contrast to the narrow underground deposits of South America, the Zambian deposits are bulk-mineable because they occur where fluid carrying pegmatitic veins come in contact with extensive ultramafic schist units containing chromium, resulting in zones of green beryl or emerald mineralization.

Mineralisation occurs where the quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins intrude the Talc-Chloride-Tremolite-Magnetite (TCTM) schists and alter the contact zone into a biotite-phlogopite rock. This alteration zone (0.1 - 3.4 m in thickness) forms the main ore body, yielding the vast majority of the emeralds.

Mineralisation is known to extend up to distances of 8-10 m into the unaltered country rock (TCTM schists only).

Limited mineralisation has also been found within the tourmaline-rich veins as well.

The distribution of emerald pockets is irregular. The richer (volume and grade) deposits appear to be more closely associated with flat-lying undulating veins than with the steeply dipping varieties. Relatively high concentrations of emerald are also found where a number of veins intersect. In addition, where a number of parallel pegmatite veins occur in close proximity, a larger amount of biotite-phlogopite alteration zone is produced and emerald mineralisation can be quite extensive.

2.0 Introduction.
Although the Ndola Rural emerald fields have been known and exploited since 1928, very little systematic geological investigation and limited production has taken place. This is partly the result of limited outcrop exposure, combined with a perceived low economic potential in comparison with the nearby Copperbelt.

In addition, the majority of the emerald deposits have, historically and to this day, been the preserve of artisinal miners who have not had the capital or cash flow to encourage professional exploration/exploitation of the area. The above notwithstanding, a strong demand exists for Zambian emeralds in particularly Europe, with these stones fetching prices comparable to the better known Colombian emeralds, which in fact is greater than that received for comparable size diamonds.

Research into the emerald fields have led us to believe that enormous potential exists for the establishment of a large profitable mining operation plus perhaps, adding value to the product by establishing a cutting and polishing operation. Already one private group, Kamakanga, which has made a significant investment to its operation shows very real evidence of lucrative profits, without the benefit of industry-standard reserve definition or mine planning.

Also, the large semi-nationalized emerald miner, Kagem, is being 50% privatized with an Indian-Israeli consortium investing some US$ 6M into modernizing the operation. Further, and of particular significance, our geological investigations suggest that the favourable geology for emerald formation is much more extensive within the Protected Area than currently mapped, and as well may cover significant portions of northern Zambia.

With respect to mining policies and laws in Zambia, the Government enshrined basic assurances that foreign investors expect into one of the most attractive Mining Acts in the world in 1995. Specific points which are guaranteed include:

With specific reference to emeralds, the Government established a distinct Gemstone Licence, which entitles the holder to explore for and exploit the stones for up to ten years.

Prospecting licences on a regional basis can be up to 1,000 sq. km in size, after which gemstone licences could be applied for once emeralds had been identified. Those operations reaching full-scale commercial operations would be required to apply for large-scale mining licences under the Act.

With respect to taxes, the corporate tax rate in Zambia is 35%, royalties on gemstones are 5%, and there is a non-resident withholding tax of 10% applicable to rents, dividends, interest, management fees and royalties.

Incentives for mining development include:

It is concluded that the Ndola-Rural Emerald Fields, as currently known, represent a potentially lucrative mining investment opportunity. Our technical review suggests that there is immediate potential to establish a producing operation and that modern phased exploration is highly likely to result in significant discoveries of further emerald deposits within the demarcated Protected Area, and further afield.

There is an immediate need for a phased investment due - diligence exercise to be carried out on the Ndola-Rural Emerald Fields. Obviously any decision to invest would be predicated on the ability to immediately produce emeralds, therefore an approach consisting of the following is recommended:

"Determination of which plots are technically of economic interest within the Kamakanga-Piralla-Kagem corridor of the Protected Area. This would involve at least rudimentary geological investigation of deposits, estimation of resources, value of emeralds, etc., all with the aim of combining several into a large operation. The team should consist at minimum of an experienced geologist and gemologist."

3.0 Zambian Emerald Industry.
The production of emeralds in Zambia has occurred for at least some 65 years since the discovery of the Miku Deposit in the Ndola - Rural Emerald Fields, but has been poorly documented. Certainly little production occurred initially, and it wasn't until Rio Tinto Mineral Search of Africa prospected the area in the 1950's that more deposits began to the discovered, and Miku received a thorough evaluation, entering more formal production in 1967.

A state-owned company, Mindeco, took over Miku in 1971, and also carried out prospecting and small-scale mining operations at new discoveries Kamakanga, Piralla, Fibolele and Fwaya-Fwaya. Considerable interest from artisinal miners at the first two deposits above, made state-control difficult to achieve in terms of managing and documenting production.

However a market for Zambian stones formed that grows to this day, with Israel and India the primary cutting centres and Europe the ultimate destination.

The government attempted in 1977 to systematically explore the area using modern technologies but again this work is poorly documented. By 1978 the area was in such a chaotic state with private individual diggings, that the area was closed to prospecting and mining.

The Emerald Protection Area then became the responsibility of the Dept. Of Mines and Minerals, with the para-statal Mindeco taking a leading role in developing the resources. The perceived better portions of the diggings, including several of the deposits mentioned above, were grouped into the holdings of a new para-statal, Kagem, which though never profitable, is likely the largest emerald mining operation in the world (see plates at rear).

Marketing and cutting of stones was attempted through another para-statal, Zambia Emerald Industries Limited. This organisation appears to have been entirely inefficient in terms of profitability, and was not able to attract the interest of the producers and sellers, who could earn better prices on the black market.

From that point through to the early 1990's, when democracy came to Zambia, it appears that most, if not all, industry production revenue either was swallowed up by the inefficient (and perhaps corrupt) government agencies, or was of an illicit nature with the stones eventually appearing in neighbouring countries. Even to this day, it is doubtful that more than 30% of stones by weight (and much less by value) are declared to the Government and full royalties are paid.

The ultimate destination of the stones as mentioned, is cutting centres in Israel and India, with the former by far the dominant buyer. Conversely in Zambia itself, Indians appear to be intimately involved in mining and buying stones on the more massive scale.

A consortium of Israeli and Indian investors known as Hagoura is presently investing $US6m into Kagem, the state emerald mining company, apparently to earn 50%. Having toured their operation with their mine geologist, investment is sorely needed on all aspects of the operation but especially mine planning and milling operations.

Annual production is impossible to quantify for all of the reasons above, but based on inspection of all the major operations, is estimated currently exceed 1,000 kg/yr but less than 1,500 kg/yr. From this total, somewhere around 25% are cuttable and fetch in the order of $US75-500 per ct, based on figures released by ESMAZ, the Emerald & Semi-precious Stones Mining Association of Zambia, for a total industry revenue of $US 37.5 - 75 million.

The better quality raw stones attain values in excess of US$l,000/ct if cut   locally, and $US10,000/ct at major centres. Zambian emeralds are regarded as second only to Colombian stones in terms of quality, with distinctive blue-green and yellow-green colouration which is highly sought in Europe.

With the new democratic government firmly in place, the stringent controls on movement of stones has been replaced by a more free market-friendly system. The new mining act allows for all emerald miners to obtain a government issued permit to possess and sell stones. Legally the miners have two outlets for their stones; they may sell to licenced buyers in Zambia and remit 5% of the realized value to the government, or; they may take their stones to Lusaka and have them valued by the government evaluator, after which they may export the stones and pay 5% on the government figure rather than the realized value. The majority of the declared stones exit the country in the latter of the two methods.

4.0 Geological Background.
4.1 FIRST DISCOVERIES:
The first discovery of beryl in the Ndola emerald field (also referred to as Kafubu emerald field) was reported in 1928 by geologists of the Rhodesia Congo Border Concession Company at Miku.

Between 1928 and 1931 the small mine had been worked out; no other showings were located and it appeared that the Miku occurrence was the sum total of the Zambian emerald field.

Miku and the surrounding areas were investigated superficially by the Rhokana Company in the 1940's and by Rio Tinto Mineral Search of Africa in the 1950's.

In the late 1960's a small private company, Miku Enterprises Limited carried out some more explorations over the mine property and did some small scale mining.

In 1971 the mining rights to Miku were taken over by Mindeco Limited, (a government owned company), following which the whole area was mapped by Hickman of the Geological Survey of Zambia. In 1974 new deposits were discovered by local diggers at Kamakanga, Piralla, Fibolele and Fwaya-Fwaya. This led to further prospecting (little more than fossicking) and mining by private artisinal diggers as well as by Mindeco.

Very little was achieved during this period regarding an understanding of the geological or structural controls on the emerald mineralization.

Since the early 1990's the Kamakanga deposit, owned and operated by the Kuber Mineral & Metal Mining Co. Ltd, has grown into the second largest but, by far, the most profitable mine in the emerald field. A limited technical data has been collected at this time as a result of extensive mining operations and some diamond drilling.

This is the only private operation that makes extensive use of mechanization, and whilst still apparently haphazard by traditional mining standards, does appear to be relatively efficient. A major bonus is the relatively flat attitude of the pegmatites and host schist unit, making this deposit the most attractive model for emulation in terms of any new enterprise, as virtually the entire area of the plot is open pittable ore horizons.

Emerald production was reported by their mine manager to average 10-20 kg per month, (50-100,000 ct), in all categories, during the dry months May to January.

In the 1980's Mindeco's holdings were transferred to Kagem Mining Ltd, a quasi-government operation that has the largest land holdings in the area. Due, in part, to the semi-nationalized nature of Kagem, the mine is not profitable at present.

The operation known as Fwaya-Fwaya along with Dabwisa Pit are the only current active pits. Here mining is at a depth of more than 60 metres but without haul trucks, such material was being moved successively to higher ground by excavators in sequence and obviously not at an efficient rate. Emerald production was reported by their mine manager as averaging 4 kg per day in all categories. With foreign investment and a new plant was hoped to reach 10 kg per day. The gentleman also indicated that 80% by value of their production was disappearing, which emphasizes the need for a secure operation.

Since the 1990's some foreign interest in the emerald field has occurred, predominantly South African investors who have put small amounts of money into some privately owned operations in the hope of making a high and very quick return on their investment. To date virtually none of these ventures has been either financially successful of beneficial to the local miners as funds have 'dried up' quickly after the first stones have been exported.

4.2 GEOLOGICAL SETTING:
Zambia lies between the Zairean and the Zimbabwe cratons and is therefore characterized geologically as being predominantly ancient mobile belts. These rocks comprise igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic formations and are for the most part Precambrian in age.

Successful orogenies were responsible for welding the enclosed younger rocks to the older nuclei or cratonic rocks, with several tecton-thermal events well recognized:

These events had profound geological manifestations, seen not only in Zambia but all of this region.

The famous Copperbelt of Zambia-Zaire is the single greatest source of copper and cobalt in the world. These events were also responsible for the mechanisms which formed the nearby emerald deposits, which we believe are similarly world-class.

4.3 STRATIGRAPHY:
The emerald deposits are almost entirely confined to the Muva Supergroup, a meta sedimentary unit lying between the basement granite-gneiss complex and the Katanga Supergroup.

The predominantly adamellite or biotite-adamellite granite-gneisses generally outcrop in the northwestern and southeastern portions of the emerald field. In places quartz-muscovite schists, kyanite schists and small amphibolite bodies are found, as are quartz-rich pegmatite bodies.

Although the generally accepted stratigraphy places these amphibolite bodies in the Basement Complex, the geological map suggests that they may, actually, be a basal unit of the overlying Muva Supergroup. The granites are considered to be between 1975 and 1750 Ma and pegmatites found within the basement unit are dates at 1635 Ma.

The granites are overlain by the rocks of the Muva sedimentary sequence. This unit comprises quartzites near the base and a thick band of quartz-mica schists which is intercalated with a number of ultramafic talc-chlorite-tremolite-magnetite (TCTM) units. It was thought that the TCTM schists formed a single horizon relatively low in the Muva Supergroup, forming two persistent bands.

Recent geological interpretations, however, are of the opinion that there are four main belts of TCTM schists in the emerald area.

The main components of the TCTM schists are talc, colourless-green chlorite, tremolite-actinolite and around 5% (reaching 15% locally) magnetite which contains chromium substituting for Fe3+ . The schists are believed to have been derived from ultra basic lava flows or sills. The age of deposition of the Muva Supergroup is thought to be 1635-1300Ma.

The Muva rocks have been extensively intruded by both tourmaline-rich and tourmaline-poor pegmatites. The age of these pegmatites has been tentatively dates at 840Ma and correlated with post-tectonic Kibaran granite emplacement. Emerald mineralisation is common where the tourmaline-rich pegmatites intrude the TCTM schists.

These deposits are all overlain by Younger (1000-500Ma) Katangan supergroup rocks. These units comprise shales, sandstones, dolomites, quartzites, limestones and conglomerates.

Copper, gold, and cobalt is recovered from the lower Mines Series.

Extensive Quaternary-Recent alluvial deposits are located along the courses of, among others, the Kafue and Kafubu rivers. Ferricreted colluvial deposits are ubiquitous in the emerald area.

4.4 REGIONAL STRUCTURAL SETTINGS:
The stratigraphic sequence in the emerald area has been affected by both the Kibaran (1100Ma) as well as the Lufilian (approx 500Ma) orogenies. The pre-Katangan rocks were extensively sheared and faulted during the Kibaran orogeny which was also responsible for the intrusion of the tourmaline bearing pegmatites. During the succeeding Lufilian orogeny, at least four phases of folding and metamorphism were superimposed upon the already deformed Muva deposits.

4.5 LOCAL GEOLOGICAL SETTING:
The current thinking on the emerald distribution and genesis is that the mineralisation is entirely confined to the TCTM schists of the Muva Supergroup and that these schists comprise three or four W-E trending zones in the Kafubu area. It is also accepted that the second controlling factor of mineralisation is the presence of quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins.

Mineralisation occurs where the quartz-tourmaline veins intrude the TCTM schists and alter the contact zone into a biotite-phlogopite rock. This alteration zone (0.1 - 3.4 m in thickness) forms the main ore body, yielding the vast majority of the emeralds. Mineralisation is known to extend up to distances of 8-10 m into the unaltered country rock (TCTM schists only). Limited mineralisation has also been found within the tourmaline-rich veins as well.

Three distinct varieties of pegmatite veins are known in the emerald deposits:

"First generation" pegmatites are rich in quartz and feldspar and contain minor, fine-grained tourmaline. This variety is not usually related to mineralisation and is thought to represent the initial feeder phase of intrusion in the Kafubu area. Where these pegmatites were observed (Fwaya Fwaya, Kamakanga and Plat 14 (old), they were always intruded along steeply-dipping (shear) planes discordant to the schistosity.

"Second generation" pegmatites comprise large (up to 7m thick pegmatites were observed) veins composed largely of tourmaline. These veins are usually discordant and steeply dipping are commonly associated with emerald mineralisation.

"Third generation" pegmatites are composed of coarse (5-10mm) quartz and tourmaline. Such veins are always found in association with mineralisation and can be either concordant or discordant to bedding and-or schistosity and can also be either steeply dipping or flat-lying.

A fourth variety of vein was noted in property examinations by MPH consulting Limited. Small (cm scale) veins, compositional similar to second and third generation pegmatites, occur within the biotite-phlogopite ore-body parallel to the schistosity. They are only found where one or more of the other larger pegmatites occur and are intimately associated with emerald mineralisation.

The distribution of emerald pockets is very irregular. The richer (volume and grade) deposits appear to be more closely associated with flat-lying undulating veins than with the steeply dipping varieties. Relatively high concentrations of emerald are also found where a number of veins intersect. In addition, where a number of parallel pegmatite veins occur in close proximity, a larger amount of biotite-phlogopite alteration zone is produced and emerald mineralisation can be quite extensive.

4.6 EMERALD GENESIS:
Late and post-Kibaran granite emplacement was characterised by intensive pulses of pegmatite activity rich in minerals containing Boron, Beryllium and Fluorine. These highly volatile phases appear to have been channelled through a well developed network of steeply dipping shear zones and glide surfaces. Where the schists display a generally flat and undulating attitude, this created the most suitable structural traps to facilitate crystallization of beryl.

The Phase III quartz-tourmaline pegmatite phase appears to have been the primary source of beryllium and boron needed to form gem quality beryl and tourmaline seen throughout the protected area. The presence of minute amounts (up to 0.5%) of Chromium (substituting for iron) within magnetite in the TCTM schists was responsible for the development of emerald beryl in the schists.

Crystallization of beryl appears to have taken place during the metasomatic reactions between the slow cooling pegmatites and the surrounding schists, resulting in the biotite-phlogopite ore zones bracketing the veins.

The whole sequence then underwent intense shearing and folding during the Lufilian orogeny, which was likely responsible for the extensive fracturing common to the larger Kafubu emeralds. Despite this flaw, the smaller stones can be of considerable value, and MPH is aware of large specimens attracting prices as high as $US1,500,000.

5.0 Current Land Status.
Whilst Zambia is receiving a great deal of exploration interest in primarily base-metals, the precious stones commodities have been largely overlooked. Diamond exploration is continuing, largely along the Angolan border.

The rather fragmented history of governmental philosophies regarding the Ndola-Rural Emerald Fields has resulted in a correspondingly complex land position, as portrayed on the map. This has been further complicated by subsequent deals amongst plot holders, resulting in fragmented plots. In essence past mining laws allowed any person or corporation to apply for and own a single plot, provided yearly rentals are paid.

The map is the current title map provided by the Dept. Of Mines, colour coded to portray relative amount of exploitation which has occurred. Confusion as to the different licence types, and property status led the adoption of this presentation technique.

The old system of tenure called for plots to be applied for and granted by the Department of Mines, after which a three year prospecting licence was needed to explore and develop.

Commercial exploitation necessitated the granting of an Exploitation Licence or Mining Licence, depending on the area of administration. All of the above has been simplified by the new Mining Act, which calls for all plot holders to register for a Gemstone Licence, and if they are producing, Gemstone Sales Certificates.

From the map it is obvious that only a small portion of the overall protected area is currently being, or has ever been exploited. Our geological examinations suggest that some of the plots in the immediate vicinity of the Kamakanga-Piralla-Kagem corridor are extremely prospective at present, and as well some outlying areas are also worthy of immediate attention.

6.0 Field Observations.
A field visit was undertaken in an attempt to understand the geological and structural controls on the emerald deposits and to make recommendations regarding the potential of the area as well as comments on the nature of any further prospecting activities. Twenty two (22) plots and mining licences were visited where dips and strikes were measured on as many pegmatite veins as possible. These are designated with blue colouring on Map 3.

Measurements were also taken of bedrock schistosity where possible. The structural data were drawn up and plotted at 1:50 000 scale on Map 4, and compared with the known, and interpreted, geology.

The objective of the initial fieldwork was to determine whether there are any preferential structural orientations along which the pegmatites have been intruded and how this can be used to determine where further prospecting activities might be concentrated. The following observations can be made:

Many of the pegmatite veins are oriented parallel to the major Katangan faults affecting the basement granite with the Muva Supergroup in the near vicinity. This is particularly obvious around the Miku and Kagem deposits;

Other veins are oriented parallel (or sub-parallel) to the schistosity developed in the TCTM schists;

Some of the veins are developed parallel with the bedding of the TCTM schists; The schistosity is not always parallel with the bedding of the TCTM schists;

Pegmatites can change their attitude from steeply dipping to almost completely flat-lying within a few tens of metres. Where this was observed on Kamakanga Property the change in dip of the pegmatite was associated with a similar change in dip of the TCTM schistosity. It is, therefore, probable that these rapid changes in attitudes are the result of Katangan deformation.

However, having made these observations, it becomes increasingly more obvious that the pattern (orientation) of pegmatite intrusion is the result of the superimposition of the Katangan structural fabric (with four phases of deformation) upon the pre-Muva (Kibaran/Ubendian, with their own deformation phases) tectonic liberations.

Consequently, it would be necessary to "unfold" the Katangan structures before it becomes possible to understand the intrusion pattern of the pegmatite veins. The present study did not collect sufficient data in order to accomplish this task, which will require the expertise of a structural geologist.

This is an extremely important observation, which could mean that huge prospective areas exist which have never been evaluated.

7.0 Field Work.
The initial fieldwork was able to highlight a number of geological features that will be of much use in further prospecting activities in the area. The present state of geological mapping is incomplete in that not all the outcrops or subcrops of the TCTM schists or pegmatite localities are shown (or, in fact, known).

We were able to infill three additional areas of TCTM schist and a large number of pegmatite veins in the Kafubu emerald area (Map 4), after very limited fieldwork. From this it is suggested that there is a very large potential for additional deposits of both TCTM schists as well as Be-rich quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins to occur within and outside of the current emerald mining area.

Since at least some of the pegmatite veins associated with emerald deposition appear to be related to post-Muva (Katangan) faulting, additional bands of TCTM schist need to be explored for.

Initial focus should include all along the contact of the basement granite-gneiss complex with the Muva Supergroup, especially in the vicinity of extensive fracturing and-or where pegmatites are known to exist.

7.1 NEW TYPE OF OCCURRENCE:
A New Type of Emerald Occurrence Contrary to presently accepted theory that emeralds are only found in association with TCTM schists, it is noted that emerald deposits are also to be found in the amphibolite band within the granite-gneisses of the Basement Complex:

(1) Emerald "mines" on ML 84 (Gentina), ML 177 (Mitondo), Plot 20/28 (Hersoto), and Plot 5B (Melai) are not located on TCTM schist on the Muva Supergroup but appear to be located on amphibolite bands attributed to the Basement Complex. It has been mentioned above that we believe that the amphibolite units found in the Kafubu area (on the Luanshya map, Map 2) are not part of the Basement Complex, but are pat of the Muva Supergroup. It is suspected that the majority of these amphibolite units may have been misidentified in the initial 1976 mapping and that those found closely associated with the mica schists and meta-quartzites of the Muva Supergroup are, in fact, additional TCTM schist beds (possibly duplicated by thrust faulting?)

(2) On Plot 213, however, the ore body being prospected is not TCTM schist but a thin (approx 7 m) mafic unit that has been intruded by 4 x thin quartz-tourmaline veins. The contacts of the mafic unit with the granite are obviously faulted. It is thought likely that this mafic unit is a true amphibolite band/dyke belonging to the Basement Complex. It is interesting to note that although the emeralds recovered from this deposit were small and "sugary" in texture, the colour and quality was acceptable (Pers. Comm from artisinal workers, 1997)

8.0 Field Conclusions.

  1. The fundamental control on mineralisation appears to be the presence of Be-bearing quartz-tourmaline pegmatite veins.
  2. Where these pegmatite veins intrude the (chromium-rich) TCTM schists of the Muva Supergroup, the altered contact zone forms a biotite-phlogopite rock. In this host-rock variably economic concentrations of emeralds occur. The more pegmatites that occur in close proximity, the larger the ore-body thus developed and the more extensive is the emerald mineralisation.
  3. It appears that emerald mineralisation can also develop where the quartz-tourmaline veins intrude into amphibolite units (sheared dykes?) in the granitic basement.
  4. The intrusion of the veins is the result of late-stage pegmatitic activity associated with the Kibaran orogeny. The pegmatites invaded shear zones and glide planes within the schists, forming discordant and concordant ore zones. Where the pegmatite veins were more flat lying  the crystallization of emerald appears to have been at a premium.
  5. Further shearing and faulting during the Lufilian orogeny resulted in deformation of the pegmatites as well as fracturing of the emeralds themselves
  6. Current geological mapping is incomplete and also, it is suspected, inaccurate. Because the TCTM schists outcrop poorly, their presence has been mapped badly. Consequently many more such horizons may exist within the Muva Supergroup. It is also possible that many of the units mapped as basement amphibolites are, actually, TCTM schist that also have emerald potential. In the cases where the amphibolite has been identified correctly, they should also be seen to have mineralisation potential, although probably not on the same scale as the TCTM schist.

So little is know regarding the details of the emerald deposits of the Kafubu area. These studies will do much to enhance the present understanding of why and how these deposits occur. However, regarding the short-medium term goal of identifying possible economic deposits through exploration the following observations are made:

As a result of the poor mapping of the TCTM schists, due mostly to its poor outcrop, the full extent of these rocks is not known. A detailed airborne magnetic survey could be used to locate these deposits everywhere that Kibaran pegmatitic activity is suspected. In the first instance this survey could cover the Basemen/Muva contact zone to the south and southwest of the Kafubu emerald field, as well as the entire restricted area. It is thought that a magnetics-radiometric survey flown at low altitude by a helicopter would be capable of accurately delineating the TCTM schists, a good portion of the structural complexity, and at least the larger and/or flat-lying pegmatite dykes. One would, ideally, like to be able to identify specific areas where the pegmatites are flat-lying as these represent the best mining scenarios. The above geophysical work augmented with a detailed structural analysis by a suitably-qualified geologist should identify those areas for further investigations.

9.0 Conclusion.
It is concluded that the Ndola-Rural Emerald Fields, as currently know, represent a potentially lucrative mining investment opportunity. Our technical review suggests that there is immediate potential to establish a producing operation and that modern phased exploration is highly likely to result in significant discoveries of more emerald deposits within the demarcated Protected Area, and further afield.

Investigations into land status and holdings suggest that although it is complicated and that numerous groups exist which own potentially attractive plots, the situation is not untenable or hopeless. A strong willingness to attract foreign investment has been expressed by the local miners and their Association, and all appear intent on establishing a conducive environment for agreements and development, through reasonable and open negotiations.

The Republic of Zambia is seen as an extremely good venue in which to invest, with progressive government policies and laws, all of which are designed to attract foreign investment. The country is regarded as a model for the rest of Africa in terms of attracting foreign investment, and in the privatizing of its former nationalized industries.

Infrastructure within and about the emerald area is excellent, as it location near to Kitwe in the Copperbelt is close to the centre of resurgence for both Zambia and the former Zaire.

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