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Emerald & indicator rocks EMERALD MINE
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HISTORY:

The emerald (Greek: smaragdos) of the ancients probably referred to a number of distinct species of green stones; that mentioned in the Old Testament probably was carbuncle garnet. Superstitions abound concerning the emerald, birth stone for May: it supposedly soothes the eyes, preserves chastity, cures dysentery, prevents epilepsy, drives away evil spirits.

It is fascinating that beautiful gems have been around for centuries. They have always been highly prized. They are mentioned in the Bible, and were present in cultures dating thousands of years ago. WHY? The answers are numerous and highly interesting.

First of all there is simply an allure to a beautiful emerald, ruby, sapphire, or diamond. These along with hundreds of other types of beautiful gemstones appear to touch a need inside people that has always existed. Some gems are rare and others are relatively common but nonetheless they have always been highly prized.

Gemstones are also very portable. In Europe, for example, where wars have ravaged nations for centuries people have often been stripped of their land, their homes, and all their property and possessions including their bank accounts. How did many of these people manage to escape such persecution and enter another country and almost overnight be back in business. There is only one answer. GEMS! They carried, or swallowed in some cases, their gemstones and crossed borders to personal and economic freedom.

Emeralds are the premier gems in the beryl family. For more than 4,000 years, emeralds have been among the most valuable of all jewels. In one of the rare cases where lore and fact coincide, emerald history really does begin in Egypt, where emeralds have been obtained from the schists of Cleopatra's mines, rediscovered on 1818, in the Sikait - Zubara region of Egypt (In the desert south of Cairo near the Aswan Dam) "Cleopatra's mine" began around 2000 B.C. and continued until about 1200 A.D. Although emeralds were extracted for 2000 years before Cleopatra was born, her use and love of gems led to her name being attached to the mine, an association that remains. Egypt supplied the known world with emeralds throughout the Biblical period and through the Middle Ages.

The world had to wait until Spain conquered the New World and found Indians wearing great emeralds to see how fine the green gemstones could be. Fabulous emerald crystals came from what is now Colombia. It took Spain five decades to overpower the Muzo Indians who occupied the mining area. Vast quantities were taken from South America during the Spanish conquest but the original mines have since been lost. The finest stones come from Columbia, where they are mined from the calcite veining bituminous limestone at Muzo, Cosauez, and Somondoco, Bogota; these deposits were discovered in the late 1500's. Emeralds were discovered in 1830 in mica schists near Zsverdlovsk, in Russia's Ural Mountains.

Monarchs and the gem-loving royalty in India, Turkey, and Persia sought the New World treasures once the gems arrived in Europe. The new emerald owners produced spectacular artifacts between 1600 and 1900, such as the "Atocha Cross" Fabricated in Colombia and lost underwater in the Florida Keys for more than two centuries, the Spanish Colonial specimen recently sold for $750,000.

Today Colombia, Brazil, and Zambia mine most commercial emeralds. Several other countries, such as Pakistan and Zimbabwe, produce smaller amounts. Although Brazil mines more emeralds annually than any other country, Colombia dominates the trade by setting the standards for size and colour. It is Colombian emeralds against which all others are judged. Rarer and sometimes more expensive than a similar-sized diamond, Colombian emeralds have a unique look, a green lightly touched with blue. Muzo, the original mine, remains the most important emerald mine in the world.

Asian culture also has something to teach us about Gems. Imagine having a safe filled with 10 to 20 carats flawless, rubies, sapphires, emeralds or diamonds. Believe it or not it is true. These gems are never seen by the general public, but the local banker has viewed them, taken pictures, and made valid appraisals. In such families the gems are never sold. They are passed down from one generation to the next as solid collateral for nearly unlimited borrowing power. Thus each succeeding generation has the backing to be financially successful through the commitment to gemstones by their forefathers.

Many people have placed strong emphasis on what they see as the healing qualities of gemstones. Such beliefs are different than carrying a rabbits foot for good luck. Much as people soak in hot mineral pools for relief of ailments, or wear a solid copper bracelet to relieve symptoms of arthritis, so too do some people possess gemstones that they believe produce not only physical healing, but the gemstones themselves dating back millions of years, contain information about the universe that is locked into their molecular structure. Many people steadfastly maintain that unlocking those secrets provides valuable information not otherwise obtainable.

Index

SPECIFICATIONS:

Emerald, the most valuable of gems is a transparent variety of the beryllium aluminosilicate mineral, beryl that owes its bright green colour to small amounts of chromic oxide. Large, flawless stones are very rare, lacking the fire and brilliance of diamond. Emerald is usually step cut with elongated narrow facets and an oblong table, to enhance its colour.

CLASS Silicates
SUB CLASS Cyclosilicates
CHEMICAL Be3Al2(SiO3)6, Beryllium Aluminum Silicate
Relative amounts of additional metals give rise to the different colour varieties.
CHRYSTAL SYSTEM Hexagonal; 6/m2/m2/m
LUSTRE Vitreous.
TRANSPARENCY Crystals are transparent to translucent.
HARDNESS Moh's scale 7.5 - 8
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.6 - 2.9 (average - varying with the composition.)
STREAK White.
CLEAVAGE {0001} imperfect in one direction (Basal)
FRACTURE Conchoidal.
OPTICAL n: 1.57-1.61 Varying with the composition.
COLOUR Variations of green, blue to blue-green, yellow-green, greenish-gold
USES Gemstone, mineral specimens and source of beryllium
CRYSTAL HABITS Typically include the hexagonal prism with pincoid terminations.
The terminations are often modified by many different pyramidal faces which can sometimes produce
a rounded termination in the rough shape of a used pencil eraser.
OTHER CHARACTERISTICS Faces on large crystals are often pitted, striated lengthwise and rough.
Associated Minerals include micas, quartz, euclase, calcite, tourmalines and some feldspars.
Best Field Indicators are crystal habit, lack of good cleavage, hardness and colour.
BRITHSTONE May (Taurus / Gemini)

THE FOUR C's OF GEMSTONES:
This is simply an international diamond/gemstone grading system that was created by the Gemological Institute of America. The grading system judges a gemstone by four separate factors to determine its value. The factors are: Colour, Carat, Cut and Clarity.

Colour
Gemstones come in many colours. Slight colour differences may account for the varying price differences in the cost of a gemstone. There is a standard for the perfect colours expected for some gemstones. The closer the gem comes to the standard of the perfect colour the more expensive usually will be. Some gemstone may have an exquisite colour, very scarce, and thus will have a premium on the price. A red diamond of good quality is probably the most expensive gemstone in the world.

Carat
The size of a gemstone is measured in carats. The weight (size) of a gemstone along with the ratings in the other categories will have a tremendous effect on the price. One gram is five carats or one carat is 200 mg. The larger the stone, the higher the price per carat. A good emerald of 1 carat might be US$800 ($800 p/c) but the same quality, colour, etc stone of three carats will be in the range of US$7000 ($2,333 p/c).

Cut
Gemstones may be cut in different face shapes but the faceting and depth of the 'cut' are important factors that affect the overall quality of the stone. The 'cut' of a gem allows it to make the best use of light. When a gemstone is cut properly, light is reflected from one facet to another and then refracted and dispersed through the top of the stone creating it's sparkle, brilliance, fire, etc. Also important is the quality of the finishing / polishing work.

Clarity
To assess a gemstone's clarity, it is viewed under 10-power magnification by a trained eye. Clarity grades are based on the combination of blemishes on the outside of the stone as well as the inclusions trapped inside the crystal.

Most gemstones contain very tiny flaws, traces of non-crystallized material, known as inclusions. Inclusions interfere with the light shining through and dispensed out of the gemstone.

Precious and Semi-precious Gemstones
There are about 100 minerals that are valued or thought of as gemstones. About 30 of those 100 are used largely for jewellery. Many stones just don't have the toughness or hardness to be good choices for jewellery. Diamonds, emeralds, rubies and sapphires of high quality and size are rare and the most costly of gemstones. Other precious and semi-precious gems like amethysts, opals, garnets, carnelians and jades are less rare but their quality is still evaluated in the same way. The distinction between precious and semi-precious stones is relative: an especially large and lovely amethyst or opal may have more value than an ordinary diamond or emerald.

Index

BERYL GROUP:

Beryl is often unknown to the general public, even the gemstone-buying public. However, it is one of the most important gem minerals. Beryl is colourless in pure form; it is the many different impurities that give beryl its varied colouration. Without these splendid colour varieties, beryl would be a rather ordinary gemstone with only average fire and brilliance.

The green variety is called Emerald
The blue variety is Aquamarine
The greenish-yellow variety is called Heliodor.
The pink variety is called Morganite.
The colourless variety is called Goshenite.
The name beryl is used for the red and golden varieties, which are simply called red beryl and golden beryl, respectively.

Aquamarine
Most stones are pale to medium bluish-green, as the name implies, but they are almost blue. Aquamarines are often heat-treated to enhance the blue colouration. This heat-treating results in permanent colour change and duplicates natural heating that occurs in areas of volcanic activity. Aquamarine often occurs in very large sizes, usually with very good clarity. Brazil is the largest source, followed by Zambia, Pakistan, Madagascar and Mocambique. In recent years, the price of aquamarine has declined somewhat, as an abundance of inexpensive blue topaz look-alikes has flooded the market, but large, fine to quality and larger aquamarines are still highly prized.

Emerald
Medium to dark green beryl which derives its colour from chromium or vanadium. The best known sources include Colombia, Brazil and Zambia. Almost all emeralds contain numerous small inclusions and fractures that promote fragility. Most stones on the market are impregnated with oils, waxes, or other substances to mask the fractures and sometimes enhance colour. Such stones should never be cleaned with ultrasound, as it may remove or damage the impregnating substance. Emeralds of fine colour and clarity can be quite expensive, usually more expensive than diamonds.

Goshenite
Colourless beryl. Abundant and low priced.

Green Beryl
Light to medium green (not bluish) beryl. Lacks the intensity of colour to be called emerald and subsequently commands lower prices.

Heliodor
Golden yellow beryl. Abundant and low priced in lighter colours and small sizes, but larger (15+ carats) stones in darker colours are more in demand.

Morganite
Pink beryl. Named for J. Pierpont Morgan, whose gem collection now resides primarily in the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Pale stones are abundant and inexpensive. Fine, intense purplish-pink stones from Madagascar and other locations are magnificent and rare. The colour fades on prolonged exposure to sunlight, which increases the rarity of fine coloured morganite. Morganite are often heat treated to become the blue Aquamarine.

Red Beryl (Bixbite)
The rarest of beryls, found only in the Wah Wah Mountains of Utah. Always quite small, usually under 1 carat, and correspondingly expensive. At least one dealer has attempted to market red beryl as "red emerald," but most are unwilling to accept that appellation.

Index

MINING:

Emerald is the deep green gemstone variety of beryl, which also occurs in red, golden, blue and yellowish colours. The world's most notable occurrences are Muzo, Cosquez, and El Chivor. Additional classic localities of note include South Africa, Zimbabwe Zambia and Russia.

The finest stones come from Columbia, where they are mined from the calcite veining bituminous limestone at Muzo, Cosauez, and Somondoco, Bogota; these deposits were discovered in the late 1500's. Emeralds were discovered in 1830 in mica schists near Zsverdlovsk, in Russia's Ural Mountains.

Unlike other gemstones, emeralds may often contain visible inclusions. These are actually of some value in differentiating natural emeralds from synthetics, which are becoming ever more difficult to discern from the real (natural) stone. Are variety of emerald, trapiche, is actually highly prized for its inclusions, which take on unusual shapes within the crystal lattice.

A deposit is defined as a group of occurrences large enough to be worked (also called a mine). A find is described as a single occurrence.

Primary deposits refer to gems found in their original location. The yield is generally low due to the fact that many tons of non-gem bearing material have to be excavated.

Secondary deposits refer to gems which have been transported by the actions of wind, rain and flowing water.

Fluvial deposits are created by rivers, marine deposits by the sea and aeolian Deposits by the wind.

The distribution of gems around the world is irregular. Gem deposits occupy only a tiny proportion of the earth's crust.

Mining Methods
Most gemstones are discovered by accident. There is no systematic approach used for Coloured Gemstones due to the lack of capital. Exceptions being Australia where the mining of Sapphires is more mechanized and systematic.
Recovery is accomplished invariably by simple means without the use of modern techniques or scientific basis. In many cases, the methods are very primitive and have remained unchanged virtually for 2,000 years.
They consist of:-

  1. Collecting gems from the surface, from dry river beds, or rock fissures.
  2. Sinking shafts into the ground sometimes up to 40 metres deep.
  3. Panning rivers.
  4. Driving short tunnels into the sides of hillsides (used for mining Ruby, Sapphire in Mayanmar and Emerald in Colombia)
  5. Open-cast mining
  6. Using powerful jets of water, when available, to loosen the gem material from the overburden.
  7. Digging pits into ancient river beds to reach the "Gem Gravels".
  8. Terrace mining.
  9. Underground mining which is expensive and can only be justified if a significant vein is located.
Index

POLISHING & PRODUCTS:

ISRAEL EMERALD CUTTERS

Since the initiation of a precious stones industry in Israel in the mid-1960s, local lapidaries have established themselves as leading suppliers of the world's highest quality cut and polished emeralds. Today, Israel lapidaries produce a majority of the world's cut African emeralds in terms of value.

Working with best quality rough, carefully selected by experts in the industry, Israel processes emeralds of all shapes and sizes. Israeli lapidaries were pioneers in obtaining and processing African emeralds-and succeeded in bringing these stones to public attention.

Israeli emerald cutters are renowned for the variety of cuts they can provide-including a wide range of fancies and odd shapes unavailable elsewhere.

Although the emerald is the stone for which the Israeli lapidaries are most famous, they are also active in the processing of ruby, sapphire, aquamarine, tanzanite, tourmaline and mandarin garnet. With processes developed in Israel, coloured stones are economically produced in commercial sizes, as well as in sizes up to 15 carats in the deepest, cleanest ranges of colour, and in special cuts, covering a wide range of wholesale prices.

State-of-the-art cutting and polishing plants, located in the immediate vicinity of Israel's modern precious stones and diamonds complex, are equipped with high-tech innovations--such as the locally developed Robogem--a computerized gem-cutting station. Israeli made cutting and polishing machines, as well as other equipment for lapidaries, are known for their advanced technology, and are in demand at most of the most of the important coloured stone centres around the world.

The Israel Emerald Cutters Association encourages its members to invest in the development of innovative technologies, which have kept Israel at the forefront of the world's gem cutting industry.

Index

MARKETING: Emeralds - the "Queen of Gems"

Emeralds are the most famous members of the Beryl family, and usually have clarity characteristics which are visible to the naked eye.

Emerald is highly prized and is one of the most valued gemstones. Its green colour is peerless and all other green gemstones are compared to its intensity.

Emerald specimens are often "flawed" with mineral inclusions and fractures; unlike other gems, these are considered part of the stones' character. These flaws actually help determine natural from synthetically-produced stones. Uncut emerald specimens are rare on the mineral markets, probably because even low grade emeralds can carry a high price when cut as gems.  In fact, it is almost impossible to find an Emerald without any of these inclusions. It is these inclusions that give each stone a unique character. Especially hard to find are true in-matrix (as found in host rock) specimens. Fakes are often produced with natural crystals glued into a host rock and then sold as an in-matrix specimen with a highly inflated price.

Increasingly rare, fine emeralds are often more valuable than diamonds, and the investment value of emeralds is among the highest of all gemstones. Stunning emeralds and a rainbow of exciting gemstone jewellery including sapphires, rubies, tanzanite, topaz, amethyst, and the fire of diamonds.

A fine emerald is judged by its depth of colour, clarity, fire, cut and size. Emeralds range in colour from a slightly light, yellowish green, to a deep, dark bluish green. The darker green colour is generally considered more desirable, but your choice should depend on the colour that you personally prefer.

Priced from the affordable to the fabulous.
Be aware that "inclusions" in an emerald are not flaws -- they are a natural part of an emerald gemstone. Inclusions are all the extras that appear in gem crystals. They may include fissures, trapped liquids, growth lines, gas, cavities, or other microscopic occurrences, but they are a given with an emerald. These natural inclusions are even considered beautiful, which explains the French gemological terminology, Jardin, meaning garden, within an emerald.

When shopping for emerald jewellery, it is most important to buy from experts. Emeralds represent a very specialized segment of the gemstone market, and jewellers who do not sell many emeralds may not be as knowledgeable about emeralds as they are about other gemstones.

For rings meant to be worn daily it is usually recommended to use bezel setting -surrounding the gem with metal instead of setting it up on prongs. This precaution protects the stone from anything except a direct top blow.

Index

METAPHYSICAL:

VEDIC:
"Pure, flawless gems have auspicious powers which can protect one from demons, snakes, poisons, diseases, sinful reactions, and other dangers, while flawed stones have the opposite effect."

GARUDA-PURANAM: Chapter 68, Verse 17
"A gem free from all impurities and radiating its characteristic internal luster should be looked upon as an "escort" of good luck. A gem which is cracked, fissured, devoid of luster, or appearing rough or sandy, should not be used at all."

AGNI-PURANAM: Chapter 246, Verse 7 & 8
Here are ancient Vedic references from both the Garuda Puranam and the Agni Puranam which state emphatically that "flawed" gemstones are inauspicious, while "clean" gems are bringers of good fortune. Note: As they did not have high-powered microscopes in the ancient times it stands to reason that flawless means "eye-clean."

Flawed gems are simply a source of misfortune, not to mention their being ugly! Think about it! How many people are prepared to tolerate defects in their clothing, or any other personal items which they possess. Even a single scratch on a nice automobile is an eye-sore, so why do people tolerate flawed gems? How can one read through cracked eye-glasses?

Think of a gemstone like a radio crystal. The crystal receives and transforms the invisible radio sound waves into audible sound. If the crystal has even one defect the sound will be distorted and unpleasant.

As stated before, gemstones are natural transmitters on Earth of astral energy waves radiated from the Nava-graha or Nine planets recognized by the Vedic science of sidereal astrology. It is common sense that only clean gems will transmit undisturbed astral energy waves

At present, the gem trade has lost much of its integrity because of the wide-spread treatment of natural gems to conceal or change imperfections. Especially guilty are the emerald dealers who oil flawed gems as a routine procedure (the oil enters the gem through internal cracks which break the surface of the stone). The gold smith (and the owner) are unaware of the defective condition which often results in broken stones. Even if the stones make it past the setter, the oil will dry out in a few years and the ugly flaws will again become visible. This confuses the owner who may even think that the stone has been switched.

There are eye-clean, beautiful emeralds on this planet but they are scarce and costly. If one cannot afford the cost of an auspicious emerald then one can opt for an upa-ratna or secondary gem. In place of emerald for the planet Mercury (Budha-graha ) one could use tsavorite (green grossularite), chrome-green or green tourmaline, chrome-green or green diopside, green peridot or green jade. Jade, being an aggregate (made up of tiny crystals all fused together) is less preferable than the other Mercury gems which are single unit crystals.

Along with the Navaratna or nine primary gems, there are many other natural gemstone choices based on colour. These upa-ratnas are less expensive than their precious counter-parts and yet they conduct the same astral energy of their associated planet. They are also easier to find without flaws or treatment.

Here is a list of the foremost upa-ratnas known to man, along with their ruling planets:

1) Red spinel, red garnet and red tourmaline (rubellite) are ruled by the Sun;
2) Moonstone is ruled by the Moon;
3) Yellow topaz, yellow beryl (heliodor) and citrine are ruled by Jupiter;
4) Orange zircon, spessertite and other orange garnets are ruled by Rahu;
5) Tsavorite, green tourmaline, diopside, peridot and jade are ruled by Mercury;
6) White (colorless) sapphire, white topaz, zircon and quartz are ruled by Venus;
7) Beryl, apatite and tourmaline cat's eyes are ruled by Ketu;
8) Tanzanite (blue zoisite), blue spinel, iolite and amethyst are ruled by Saturn;
9) Carnelian and bloodstone are ruled by Mars

REMEMBER: Whatever gem(s) you use should be flawless, because according to ancient Vedic wisdom only eye-clean gems are helpful and attractive, while visibly flawed gems are defective and disturbing!

Chemical composition of Precious stones;
Silica Acid;
All Quartz consist of silica or silicic acid, the substance that is Cosmic light. They are encountered wherever there is a striving upward, idealism, rising towards the Sun. There is silica in the nodes of celery and grasses. It allows the hollow stalks to stand erect and straighten up after being bent by the wind. There is silica in the cartilage of backbones. Also in the lenses of our eyes. This substance has the property of attracting light and driving out evil.

Quartz:
Rock Crystal- agate-Cornelian-Onyx-Chalcedony- Chrysoprase-Amethyst- Aventurine- Opal- Rose Quartz-Citrine- Jasper- Smokey Quartz-Cat's Eye. Tiger's Eye- Rhinestone-Obsidian, and others.

Magnesium;
Many stones contain Magnesium, a substance that strengthens the heart and liver, relaxes the body, and relieves cramps, soothes pain and benefits the nerves. stones that are rich in Magnesium can be laid on a spot suffering from cramp or pain. The stones on our list that contain Magnesium are Serpentine, Almandine and Ruby.

Aluminum;
Although the particles of aluminum we ingest with food that has been cooked in aluminum ware must be regarded as poison, the aluminum in stones is beneficial. It belongs to Neptune and fortifies those who are thin and debilitated,who become dizzy when they run or bend and suffer from degenerative processes and find it difficult to digest their food. Aluminum is found in ruby,sapphire,serpentine,tourmaline,turquoise, and moonstone.

Manganese;
This element,related to Iron is good for those people who do a lot of singing or speaking and are always having to clear their throats of mucus. Manganese also encourages creative thinking. This element is found in rose quartz,amethyst and almandine.

Iron;
Stones with an iron content are good for people with fever or inflammation. Iron belongs to Mars. Some stones that contain iron are bloodstone, marcasite, pyrites.

Copper:
Copper strengthens the nerves and is good for all sorts of spasms including asthma. It belongs to Venus.  It is found in Turquoise, Malachite ,Azurite and Crysocolla.

Calcium;
Calcium stiffens the bones and gives resistance against emotions. It is present in many stones and best used in a pearl necklace.I myself have a necklace of dolomite which I like to wear. Calcium belongs to Saturn .

Fluorine is found in Topaz and Apatite
Chromium in Emerald
Nickel in Chrysoprase and Serpentine
Potassium in Moonstone

The Meaning of Stones
Since ancient times people have revered stones, gems and crystals. Jewellery and amulets have been found in burial sites thousands of years old. Mystics have taught of the benefits of stones for various physical problems, as well as how and when to use them for protection, guidance and healing. Edgar Cayce, one of our most famous mystics said that gems` real value lies in the fact that they are essentially the same material as the soul. Stones are also mentioned in the Bible. There is a sympathic vibration between us and the stones. The entire world is created of atomic forces. Stones are enriched with decomposed matter and they then nourish the plants that feed and shelter us. When our attitude is correct and the stone is in harmony with us, their vibrations and colour can aid us consciously and unconsciously to find guidance for our problems.

In choosing your stone go with your first choice. As you pass your hand over a selection you will feel/sense which one is right for you.

It is important to clean your stones off previous handlers vibrations. The best way to do this is to pass them lightly through the smoke of incense or with running water. As you do so, ask that they be cleansed of all disharmony and filled with unconditional love.

Below are tables showing how S.F heart chose which stones to present.

Month stones as generally known are not true because the Sun changes sign between the 19th and 24th of each month and each month is different. Possible inner relationship between the gems and the Sun are as follow;

Aries (Ram) Fire Agate, Aquamarine, Aventurine, Bloodstone, Cat's Eye, Citrine, Diamond, Emerald, Haematite, Jade, red Jasper
Taurus (Bull) Carnelian, Cat's Eye, Chrysocolla, Diamond, Emerald, Jade, Rose Quartz,
Gemini (Twins) Agate, Aquamarine, Chrysocolla, Citrine, Emerald, Jade, Pearl, Sapphire, Serpentine, Tanzanite, Watermelon Tourmaline,
Cancer (Crab) Carnelian, Chalcedony, Moonstone, Opal, Pearl, Ruby,
Leo (Lion) Carnelian, Amber, Chrysoberyl, Citrine, Diamond, Garnet, Jasper, Marcasite, Onyx, Peridot, Ruby, Sapphire, Golden Topaz,
Virgo (Virgin) Moss Agate, Amandine, Amethyst, Amazonite, Chrysocolla, Garnet, Peridot, Sapphire, Watermelon Tourmaline,
Libra (Scales) Ametrine, Bloodstone, Chrysoprase, Citrine, Jade, Moonstone, Opal, Rose Quartz, Sapphire, Tanzanite, Pink or Blue Tourmaline,
Scorpio (Scorpion) Almandine, Malachite, Moonstone, Opal, Peridot, Ruby, Turquoise
Sagittarius (Archer) Chalcedony, Lapis Lazuli, Peridot, Ruby, Star Sapphire, Smoky Quartz, Tanzanite, Topaz, Turquoise
Capricorn (Sea-goat) Amethyst, Cat's Eye, Garnet, Jet, Malachite, S6tar Sapphire, Smoky Quartz, Tiger's Eye, Green Tourmaline,
Aquarius (Water-bearer) Amber, Amethyst, Garnet, Hematite,
Pisces (Fishes) Blue Lace Agate, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Bloodstone, Opal, Golden Topaz, Turquoise

The stones mentioned as the original twelve of the High Priests Breastplate. There are conflicting opinions on what those twelve were and so we will endeavor to present all possibilities.

In Exodus 38.8 the twelve stones mentioned are as follows;
Red Jasper, Peridot, Malachite, Hematite, Lapis Lazuli, Prase, Amber, Agate, Amethyst, Turquoise, Chrysoprase, Jade.
According to another version:
Carnelian, Topaz, Emerald, Carbuncle, Sapphirem Jasper, Opal, Agate, Amethyst, Peridot, Onyx, Sardonyx.

So we come to these 38, These stones are considered most important to our inquiry as to their relationship to the planets and benefits to ourselves.

agate- aventurine- aquamarine- amber- amethyst- almadine- amazonite- bloodstone- citrine- cat's eye- carnelian- chrysocolla- chrysoprase- diamond- emerald- garnet- hematite- jade- jasper- jet- lapis-lazuli- malachite- marcasite- moonstone-onyx- opal- pearl- peridot- ruby- rock Crystal-rose quartz-sapphire- serpentine- tiger's eye- tanzinite- topaz-tourmaline- turquoise.

Index

HEALING: Emerald - The Healer's Stone

ACIDITY :                               Emerald + Yellow Saphire+Gomedhak(Hessonite)
DIGESTIVE DISORDER :      Emerald + Yellow Sapphire(or Hessonite)
EAR TROUBLES :                  Red Coral + Emerald
EPILEPSY :                             Emerald + Moon Stone
GALL STONES :                     Red Coral + Emerald
HEART DISEASE :                 (Emerald + Yellow Sapphire + Moonstone) or Ruby
HERNIA :                                Red Coral + Yellow Sapphire
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE : Emerald + Yellow Sapphire + Blue Sapphire
INSOMNIA :                          Emerald + Moonstone + Yellow Sapphire
MENTAL ILLNESS :              Emerald + Moonstone + Yellow Sapphire
MISCARRIAGE :                    Red Coral + Emerald
PARALYSIS :                         Red Coral + Emerald
TYPHOID :                             Emerald + Yellow Sapphire + Moonstone

Please Note : Gems should be used as a second line of defence against any disease, after consulting a Gem Astrolger.

It seems that more kinds of physical healing have been ascribed to the emerald than to almost any other stone. During the third century A.D. it was believed to lessen eyestrain, and many gem engravers kept it on their worktable. Various cultures attributed to it the ability to heal a range of digestive troubles.

Emerald was also widely believed to offer its wearer supernatural protection. Hindu physicians claimed that it destroyed demoniacal influences; while others believed that it protected one from the attacks of venomous creatures and evil spirits.

We make no such claims, but we are extremely fond of emeralds for their beauty and for the assistance they've given us in emotional and spiritual balancing.

This is emerald's most distinctive quality. It relates to both the heart chakra, which serves (among other functions) as an area of balance between the upper and lower chakras. The heart is the area to work on when emotional balance is required, and meditating with an emerald and a rose quartz on this area can be very helpful.

As a heart stone, it relates to love, but it's a love which is less connected to personal relationships than to universal love and compassion. It's a good stone to put in front of a statue of Kwan Yin, the Chinese goddess of compassion.

Emerald and Taurus
According to crystal lore, emerald came to earth from the planet of Venus, and the sign of Taurus has traditionally been ruled by Venus (although some modern astrologers now relate Taurus to Earth).

I feel that the connection is even deeper. The Taurean is often a greater lover of material existence, particularly of physical comfort and beauty, and sometimes of luxury. An emerald satisfies all requirements for beauty, and can be a very luxurious gem to own.

At the same time, the spiritual energy of emerald can help a Taurean to see beyond the world of the material, to appreciate hose things of beauty which can be neither measured nor touched.

Index

GENERAL:

THE EMERALD CONTROVERSY: DATELINE'S "ROMANCING THE STONE"

By Robert Genis

In June, 1997 a jury in Washington, DC found for Dorree Lynn against her jeweler, Blue Planet Gems. She purchased a 3.65 Colombian emerald for $38,500. The jury found the jeweler failed to disclose the emerald had been treated and decided the jeweler had to buy back the emerald plus pay her legal fees of $182,000. Blue Planet's legal fees were $160,000. Without getting into the merits of the case, it is fair to say this decision has caused shockwaves throughout the jewelry industry.

With this as background, NBC's Dateline aired the program "Romancing the Stone" on national television November 21, 1997. This was a hidden camera investigation by Lea Thompson.

The program discussed how colored stones are the rage in America and consumers are spending $321 million a year on emeralds and rubies. Lea Thompson interviewed Dorree Lynn and her husband and briefly discussed her case against Blue Planet Gems. After her emerald was returned to the jeweler to be remounted, a major inclusion became readily apparent. Presumably, this was a result of the heat involved in resetting the stone. NBC then explained the Opticon process. The "reversal" of the Opticoning process resulted in Dorree Lynn's emerald dropping in value from $40,000 to $5,000.

Cap Beesley, President of American Gemological Laboratories, spoke as an advocate for industry reform and stated, "70% of all emeralds are fracture-filled." Beesley noted that if the process reverses, the value of an emerald will drop between 25-40%.

NBC did state that the heat treatment of gemstones and the oiling of emeralds is acceptable in the trade. The FTC does require full disclosure if a gem has been fracture-filled. The AGL stated its position for full disclosure to the ultimate consumer.

NBC next went on a $17,000 shopping spree with hidden cameras. They bought a $5000 emerald from Diamond Quasar on 47th street in New York. They asked the salesman, a man identified only as Jacob, if the stone was totally natural. He said it was and sent them to an appraiser for confirmation. The appraiser stated the emerald was not filled or treated with chemicals.

NBC then purchased a $1600 emerald from Bailey, Banks, and Biddle, a $3300 ruby from Macy's, a $1500 emerald from Fortunoff, and a $4000 emerald from Tiffany's. All of the jewelers stated the stones they were selling were natural, untreated gemstones.

NBC then took the gems to the AGL. Cap Beesley concluded all the emeralds were treated with artificial resin and/or oil. The ruby from Macy's was heat treated and fracture filled with a glass-like substance. (ED note: It was probably a Mong Hsu ruby.)

It was noted that Tiffany's is a client of the American Gemological Laboratories. NBC asked Beesley, "What does this say about the market today?" Beesley responded, "The market is in serious trouble. They do not understand enough about their own product to do a reasonable, rational job to represent it." NBC then sent all the stones to the SGI laboratory in Switzerland. This lab confirmed AGL's results.

What did the jewelers say when NBC returned? Bailey, Banks, and Biddle and Fortunoff both stated they did not know the stones were treated and they have strict policies not to buy treated stones from their suppliers. Further, they stated these stones must have slipped through the system! Tiffany's said they require their suppliers to provide only natural gemstones, but detection is difficult. Macy's said they did not even know about fracture-filling. As a result of the program, Macy's will now require suppliers to disclose if the gemstones have been treated and they will disclose this information to consumers. Diamond Quasar implied he might have been duped by his supplier and said he was going to stick to buying and selling diamonds. (ED note: I find this comment interesting. Since he could not tell if the emerald was fracture-filled, how can he tell if a diamond is lasered or fracture-filled?)

What about Diamond Quasar's supposedly independent appraiser? Unbelievably, he admitted on national television that he knew the stone was treated when he examined it for NBC. However, he said he had to lie to make a living and pay the rent!

NBC then returned to AGL and asked if these excuses were good enough. Beesley responded, "No. It is their business to know about this." Further, "If we tamper with the interests of the ultimate consumer, we have a long term credibility problem. Lets deal with it now."

The program ended with NBC recommending that if you buy a stone, obtain a written guarantee the stone has not been treated. Also, if the filling reverses, you can have the stone retreated for $200. Finally, an independent appraiser can send you to a reputable independent laboratory.

Conclusion
It has been National Gemstone's experience that 99% of all emeralds we see are treated with some kind of filler. We have always felt that it is the job of the jeweler or gem dealer to explain this to the consumer . Since 99% of the colored gems we market have AGL Colored Stone Grading Reports, our clients are definitely aware if a stone has been treated or not. Consumers deserve to know that the stone they are buying is what it is being represented to be. Many jewelers and gem dealers subscribe to The Gemstone Forecaster and I understand you may fear you will lose sales if you disclose treatments. However, it has been my experience for almost 20 years that you can create long term clients by educating them and practicing full disclosure regarding treatments.

Consider this scenario: You go into a car dealer and buy a new Porsche. Later, you discover the car has a Volkswagen engine. Will you ever buy another car from the same dealer? Is this good for the car industry? Of course NOT! The safest course, if you are a consumer buying or a jeweler selling a colored stone over $1000, is to make sure the stone comes with a grading report from an internationally recognized laboratory.


A 36 carat Panjshir emerald. Yielded one 8.79 ct gem, sold for US$165,000 !!

A 36 carat Panjshir Valley, Afghanistan emerald rough.
From this crystal an 8.79 carat emerald was cut,
which sold for $165,000.

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